An antibody is a protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances known as antigens. Antibodies help eliminate disease-causing pathogens and prevent them from infecting human cells and are a crucial component of the body's defense mechanism. The immune system produces antibodies on its own. But researchers have discovered a way to simulate the immune system and create antibodies in the lab.
Man-made proteins known as antibody treatments imitate the body's natural immune response by functioning like human antibodies. The phrase "monoclonal antibody" refers to a man-made antibody created from cloned immune cells that specifically bind to one kind of antigen. In most situations, intravenous (IV) infusions of monoclonal antibodies are used to administer them. This article focuses on the various diseases that antibody therapies can help to treat or prevent.
Why Is Monoclonal Therapy Used?
A growing number of illnesses, including different malignancies, autoimmune and metabolic diseases, are treated or prevented with Monoclonal Antibody Therapy. Patients with illnesses such as malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be more susceptible to getting sick due to underlying medical conditions, immune-suppressing medications, age, or specific infections. In this situation, monoclonal antibodies may be utilized to treat patients with an underlying ailment or to ward off illness in those at risk of infection.
How Do Monoclonal Antibodies Work?
White blood cells in a healthy immune system create antibodies in reaction to an outside element. Antibodies fight illness by binding to foreign proteins known as antigens and destroying or neutralizing them.
Similarly, monoclonal antibodies are intended to find and bind to certain foreign molecules, and neutralize them.
Common Diseases That Are Treated:
Immunotherapy refers to the use of monoclonal antibodies to treat diseases. Each type of monoclonal antibody targets a certain antigen in the body. Uses for monoclonal antibodies include:
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Multiple sclerosis
- Cardiovascular disease
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Crohn's disease
- Ulcerative colitis
Cancer And Monoclonal Therapy:
Numerous cancer forms are treated using monoclonal antibodies. They can be used alone or in conjunction with other cancer treatments and are administered to patients via an infusion. Depending on the antigen that each monoclonal antibody targets, it may function in several ways.
Some monoclonal antibodies bind specifically to cancer cells and kill them. These monoclonal antibodies are referred to as targeted therapies because they are directed at particular cell receptors.
COVID-19 And Monoclonal Antibody Therapy:
In addition to the diseases stated above, monoclonal antibody therapy has been employed to combat SARS, MERS, and other diseases brought on by members of the coronavirus family. There has been an increased push to deploy monoclonal antibodies to combat the virus ever since the Covid-19 pandemic began in early 2020.
The immune system can go into overdrive in some Covid-19 virus infections, causing bursts of proteins known as cytokine. While these might or might not effectively combat the Covid-19 virus, they undoubtedly create severe inflammation in the body, potentially fatal. In such a case, it is also necessary to suppress the antigens produced by these cytokines. A particular class of monoclonal antibodies helps in treating this.
Monoclonal antibody therapy is one of the most effective biotherapeutic medications for the treatment of various cancers. They have been demonstrated to be safe and reduce toxicity compared to chemotherapy medications, minimize side effects and promote the patient’s wellbeing. The way doctors treat COVID-19 and other conditions are evolving due to monoclonal antibodies.